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It has following histological layers.

I. MUCOSA: The mucous membrane is thrown into many folds, which subdivide into other small folds (rugae). These folds provide a larger absorptive surface. The lining epithelial cells are tall columnar with microvilli (brush border) which rest on lamina propria but there Is no goblet cell. The lamina propria consists of loose connective tissue with no glands except near the neck of gall bladder, where small tubulo-alveolar mucous glands are present. There is no muscularis mucosa, submucosa, crypts and goblet cells.

II. FIBROMUSCULAR LAYER: It is an irregular network of smooth muscle fibers, which are traversed by elastic fibers as well as connective tissue septa. Outpocketings of mucosa into or through the muscular coat simulate glands which are called Rokltansky-Aschoff sinuses.

III. PERlMUSCULAR LAYER: Outside the muscle coat there is a well-developed subserosal coat of loose connective tissue, which contains blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves'to the organs. This layer is characteristic of gall bladder.

IV. ADVENTITIOUS LAYER: It is partially formed by serosa and partially by fibrosa.

In most of the tubular structures (e.g., gut, respiratory tract and uterus), the lining epithelium is infolded into mucosa and or submucosa to form mucosal and submucosal glands. The histological sections of these tubes may confuse with those of small intestine bearing villi (finger-like projections of the mucous membrane). Table 10.15 helps to differentiate between mucosal glands and villi.



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