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FEBRILE SEIZURES in children summarized

                                FEBRILE SEIZURES  

Dr Saima Khatoon

Febrile seizures are the seizures that occur between 6 to 60 months of age.
Temperature 100.4*F or higher.
In the absence of history of prior afebrile seizures,
CNS infection
 or metabolic abnormality.
They are of 2 types simple febrile seizures and complex febrile seizure
Simple febrile seizure
Complex febrile seizures
Lasts for 15 minutes
Lasts for more than 15 minutes
Usually generalized
Usually Focal
Does not reoccur in 24 hours
Reoccurs in 24 hours
Less chances of developing epilepsy
More chances of developing epilepsy later on
Risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures:
Age < 1 year
Duration of fever <24 hours
Fever 100.4 to 102.2*F
Family history of febrile seizures,epilepsy  and complex febrile seizure.
Male gender

Risk Factor of developing epilepsy after Febrile seizure:

Simple febrile seizure
Recurrent febrile seizures
Complex febrile seizure( >15min type)
Complex febrile seizures(focal type)
Neurodevelopmental delay
Family history of epilepsy

Viral rather than bacterial infections cause disturbance in cerebral electrical activity.
Respiratory infection is predisposing cause.
Make left lateral position of the patient, preferably the recovery position.
Clear the Airway.
Give oxygen inhalation as brains oxygen demand increases during seizures .
Check blood sugar level.
Secure iv line , and give inj Diazepam 0.2 mg/kg/dose
If iv line cannot be secured give per rectal diazepan with a needle less 1cc syringe lubricated with lignocaine gel in the same dose.
Buccal or intranasal midazolam may be given in the dose of 0.1mg/kg/dose
do Tepid water sponging and injection Paracetamol 10mg/Kg i/v
Take history, do physical examination to locate the source of infection, and treat the sources of infection accordingly(Antibiotic? Labs?). The source of infection is usually URTI. In an older child(beyond 18months check SOMI).
Counsel parents about risk of recurrence and 1st aid management  at home.

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